The liquid in the water hourglass is kerosene.
Mainly refers to a chemical substance. Kerosene (kerosene; kerosine), a class of light petroleum products. It is obtained by fractional distillation or cracking of natural petroleum or artificial petroleum. The so-called "kerosene" generally refers to lighting kerosene. Also known as lamp kerosene and lamp oil (lamp kerosene), also known as "fire oil", commonly known as "foreign oil", Cantonese is also known as "fire water."
Pure product is a colorless transparent liquid, yellowish when containing impurities
color. Slightly smelly. The boiling range is 180-310 ° C (not absolute, it is often changed according to the specific conditions during production), and the freezing point is -47 ° C (-40 ° C for JET A). The average molecular weight is between 200 and 250. The density is 0.8 g/cm3. Melting point -40 ° C or more. The kinematic viscosity at 40 ° C is 1.0 to 2.0 mm 2 / s. Insoluble in water, soluble in alcohol and other organic solvents. volatile. combustible. After volatilization, it is mixed with air to form an explosive mixture. The explosion limit is 2-3%. Complete combustion, full brightness, stable flame, no black smoke, no knots, no obvious odor, less pollution to the environment.
Kerosene for different purposes has different chemical compositions. The same kerosene has different physical and chemical properties due to different preparation methods and production areas. The quality of various kerosene is reduced in turn: thermal kerosene, solvent kerosene, kerosene for lamps, fuel kerosene, and kerosene for washing.
The kerosene contains 28-48% of alkanes, 20-50% or 8%-15% of aromatic hydrocarbons, 1-6% of unsaturated hydrocarbons, and 17-44% of cyclic hydrocarbons. The number of carbon atoms is 11-16. In addition, there are a small amount of impurities such as sulfides (thiols), gums, and the like. The sulfur content is 0.04% to 0.10%. Contains no benzene, diolefins and cracked fractions.
Mainly used for lighting and various fuels for burners, steam lamps, vaporizers and kerosene stoves; also for detergents for mechanical parts, solvents for rubber and pharmaceutical industries, ink thinners, cracking materials for organic chemicals; glass ceramics Process oils for industrial, aluminum sheet rolling, metal workpiece surface chemical heat treatment, etc.; some kerosene is also used to make thermometers. According to the use, it can be divided into power kerosene and lighting kerosene.
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